Symptoms diagnosed by a psychiatrist.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder diagnosed by a psychiatrist from the city of Krakow, which manifests itself through a variety of symptoms that can be divided into three main categories: positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive symptoms. Understanding these categories enables proper diagnosis and effective treatment of schizophrenia.
Positive symptoms are those that are present in people with schizophrenia but are usually absent in healthy people. People with positive symptoms are characterized by excessive mental activity and distorted perception of reality. Among the main positive symptoms of schizophrenia, the following can be distinguished:
a) Hallucinations: People with hallucinations experience sensory experiences such as hearing voices, seeing images, smelling, tasting, or touching reality that does not actually exist. The most common are auditory hallucinations, which can be one of the most distressing symptoms of schizophrenia.
b) Delusions: Delusions are false beliefs that are held despite evidence to the contrary. People with delusions may believe they are being persecuted, controlled, or have supernatural powers. These beliefs influence their behavior and actions.
c) Thinking disorders: Schizophrenia can affect a person’s way of thinking, leading to difficulties in organizing thoughts and thinking logically. People with thinking disorders may have problems concentrating, maintaining coherence of speech or creating understandable sentences.
Negative symptoms are those that involve the loss of normal functions or psychological characteristics that are present in healthy individuals. These symptoms affect the ability to function socially and achieve ordinary life goals. The most common negative symptoms are:
a) Loss of motivation: People with schizophrenia may become unmotivated to engage in activities that were previously important or enjoyable for them. They may have difficulty planning and persevering in daily activities.
b) Social withdrawal: Schizophrenia can cause social isolation and difficulties in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. People with schizophrenia may avoid social contacts because of anxiety or feelings of loneliness.
c) Apathy: This symptom manifests itself as reduced expression of emotions and decreased interest in life. People with apathy may show a lack of emotional responses to events that usually evoke emotions in other people.
Cognitive symptoms relate to cognitive functions such as memory, attention, learning ability, and thinking. People with schizophrenia may experience difficulties processing information and making decisions. The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia include:
a) Memory problems: People with schizophrenia may have difficulty remembering information and events from the past and sustaining attention for long periods of time.
b) Attention problems: Schizophrenia can affect the ability to concentrate and focus on tasks, which can make it difficult to function normally.
c) Problems with cognitive functioning: People with cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia may experience difficulties in processing information and drawing logical conclusions.
What the doctor recognizes
Psychiatrists from Krakow distinguish three main categories of symptoms of schizophrenia: positive, negative and cognitive. Positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, are characterized by excessive mental activity and distorted perception of reality. Negative symptoms, such as loss of motivation and social withdrawal, are associated with the loss of normal psychological functions. In contrast, cognitive symptoms, such as problems with memory and attention, relate to cognitive functions. Understanding these categories of symptoms is important for proper diagnosis and effective treatment of schizophrenia.